Orthotopic prostate cancer models are suitable for testing the efficacy of drug compounds against primary tumor growth in the proper tissue microenvironment. They involve a surgical procedure where prostate cancer cells are inoculated into the ventral prostate through the dorsal lobe, leading to development of a primary tumor to the site of inoculation. Pharmatest offers orthotopic prostate cancer models with the androgen receptor positive, PSA producing LNCaP cell line, and with the androgen receptor negative PC-3 cell line that also develops metastases to prostate-draining lymph nodes. Endpoint measurements include tumor size, serum PSA levels (for LNCaP cells), and metastasis frequency and histology (for PC-3 cells). Several additional parameters can be studied by immunohistochemistry, including angiogenesis, hypoxia, proliferation rate and apoptosis.
Prostate cancer metastasis models are suitable for testing the efficacy of drug compounds against several dissemination processes and growth in specific microenvironments. The metastasis models are demanding for the drug candidate, but they have an excellent clinical predictivity. Pharmatest offers intratibial models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, where radiography reveals the progression of the bone metastases. When AR positive LNCaP or VCaP cell lines are used, radiography reveals osteoblastic bone metastases typical for prostate cancer, and progression of the disease can be followed by serum PSA measurements. Histological bone samples can be analyzed for tumor area, trabecular bone area and osteoclast number to reveal detailed information about the test compound’s effects on bone metastases.